This becomes especially relevant given the fact that the English knew fully well that the mainstay of the struggle against them were the forward caste Hindus: brAhmaNa-s and kAyastha-s forming the vanguard backed by kShatriya-s or functionally equivalent jAti-s, vaNija-s and service castes. The English elite had a deep-seated hatred against them, which was accentuated by their being heathens and resisting Christianity by virtue of their civilizational moorings. The English had a long tradition of allying with Islamic powers against their rivals, in India against the Hindus, and also against Russia and France. But the First war of Independence of 1857 CE had shown that there could be an alignment of Hindu and Mohammedan interests when it came to the English. Hence, they worked assiduously to cultivate useful Islamic forces who could act as a counterbalance against Hindus. In the earlier phases of the struggle, Hindu savarNa leaders had managed to mobilize both lower strata of Hindu society and the tribal forest peoples against the English. The latter were hence targeted for subversion and were set up as a counterbalance for the forward caste Hindus. The English also tried to create a rift among the forward castes by classifying the particularly restive kAyastha-s as shUdra-s contrary to Hindu tradition. These well-known actions of the English left them with a sufficient raw material in the form of the Mohammedans and the people of the lower social strata as potential first responders. Additionally, after the emergence of fiery nationalist leaders like Tilak (a brAhmaNa) and Aurobindo (a kAyastha of the bomb in Bengal movement) and subsequently the armed struggle, the English closely “managed” the liberation movement by eliminating such dangerous leaders and attempting to channelize the Indian expression via more non-threatening leaders epitomized by the Gandhi-Nehru clique. These activities also gave the English further opportunities to plant first responders. The aftermath of WWII, however, left the English power in a disarray. Their initial defeat at the hands of Japan had smashed their image of invincibility in the eyes of Indians. The subsequent trial of the Indian National Army of Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian reaction to it showed that the Indians were unlikely to be suppressed for much longer and the days of the British empire were numbered. This realization seems to have led to concerted action by the English to have their first responders in place to give the Indians long-lasting pain from a parting sting even as the imperial scorpion was forced to scurry out of the subcontinent of jaMbudvIpa.